Experts at CSIRO Plant Sector are using RNAi to change the essential oil composition in cotton seed and create other novel traits. A leading conference loudspeaker, CSIRO Plant Industry’s Dr Peter Waterhouse, was a known member of the research team which, in 1995, first demonstrated gene silencing in plants by intentionally using double-stranded RNA. Waterhouse and his colleague, Dr Chris Helliwell, will speak on the applications and mechanisms of RNAi in plant genomics.Furman, O. Gaber, M. Herthelius, M. Hourmant, D. Karpman, Y. Lebranchu, C. Mariat, J. Menne, B. Moulin, J. Ogawa, G. Remuzzi, T. Richard, R. Sberro-Soussan, B. Severino, N.S. Sheerin, A. Trivelli, L.B. Zimmerhackl, T. Goodship, and C.1,2 This syndrome is caused by defects in regulation of the complement system. These defects are inherited, acquired, or both, and they result in chronic, uncontrolled activation of the complement system1-4 that leads to platelet, leukocyte, and endothelial-cell activation and systemic thrombotic microangiopathy.1,5-9 Affected patients have a lifelong threat of systemic scientific complications of thrombotic microangiopathy, including harm to multiple organ systems .7,8,13 Within 1 year after a diagnosis of this syndrome, up to 65 percent of individuals treated with plasma exchange or infusion maintain permanent renal damage, have progression to ESRD, or die.14,15 Combined liver and kidney transplantation may normalize complement regulation in individuals with certain genetic defects, 16 nonetheless it is associated with substantial mortality and morbidity, including a mortality of 14 percent in the short term.9,17,18 Eculizumab , a terminal complement inhibitor, is a humanized monoclonal antibody that binds with high affinity to the human being C5 complement proteins and blocks the generation of proinflammatory C5a and C5b-9.19-25 It is approved for the treatment of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria.