1 The retractions came only weeks after BioMed Central.

There are many lessons to be learned from these instances of peer-review and peer-reviewer fraud. One is usually that the digital manuscript-handling systems that most journals make use of are as susceptible to exploitation and hacking as various other data systems. Moon and Chen, for example, both abused a feature of ScholarOne: the e-mail messages delivered to scholars inviting them to examine a manuscript consist of log-in information, and whoever receives those messages can sign in to the operational system. Most other electronic manuscript submission systems possess similar loopholes that may easily be hacked. The most crucial lesson is that incentives work. This pressure exists almost but is specially intense in China everywhere.Marshall, Ph.D., M.R.C.P., Peter Bradding, D.M., F.R.C.P., Ruth H. Green, M.D., F.R.C.P., Andrew J. Wardlaw, Ph.D., F.R.C.P., and Ian D. Pavord, D.M., F.R.C.P.: Mepolizumab and Exacerbations of Refractory Eosinophilic Asthma Asthma is a complex chronic inflammatory disorder of the bronchial tree. Exacerbations are connected with substantial mortality and morbidity and with considerable health care costs.1 Exacerbations change from day-to-day symptoms in that they respond poorly to usual inhaled therapy and so are more closely associated with increased airway inflammation.2 The hyperlink to eosinophilic airway inflammation may be important particularly, since infiltration of the airway mucosa with activated eosinophils sometimes appears in postmortem examinations of sufferers who have passed away of acute severe asthma,3 and markers of eosinophilic airway inflammation increase well before the onset of exacerbations that are induced by the withdrawal of corticosteroid treatment.4,5 Moreover, management strategies that control eosinophilic airway inflammation along with the scientific manifestations of asthma are connected with a decrease in the frequency of exacerbations.6,7 A report of asthma therapy involving mepolizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody against interleukin-5, offers the prospect of clarifying the role of eosinophils in exacerbations, since mepolizumab is a selective and effective inhibitor of eosinophilic inflammation.8-11 Results of clinical trials of this agent among people with asthma have been disappointing,9,11 although these studies have got focused on outcome measures that aren’t closely associated with eosinophilic airway irritation and have included populations that were selected on the basis of clinical and physiological characteristics rather than the presence of eosinophilic airway swelling.12 We tested the hypothesis that eosinophils are important in the pathogenesis of asthma exacerbations by studying the result of treatment with mepolizumab for 12 weeks on the frequency of exacerbations among topics who had refractory asthma and evidence of eosinophilic airway inflammation despite treatment with high doses of corticosteroids.